Fondo Monetario Internazionale: Cyber Risk, Market Failures, and Financial Stability

Cyber-attacks on financial institutions and financial market infrastructures are becoming
more common and more sophisticated. Risk awareness has been increasing, firms actively
manage cyber risk and invest in cybersecurity, and to some extent transfer and pool their
risks through cyber liability insurance policies. This paper considers the properties of cyber
risk, discusses why the private market can fail to provide the socially optimal level of
cybersecurity, and explore how systemic cyber risk interacts with other financial stability
risks. Furthermore, this study examines the current regulatory frameworks and supervisory
approaches, and identifies information asymmetries and other inefficiencies that hamper the
detection and management of systemic cyber risk. The paper concludes discussing policy
measures that can increase the resilience of the financial system to systemic cyber risk.

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Fonte: Fondo monetario internazionale